20 July 2014

#2.1. Cell structure - Syllabus 2015

• The microscope in cell studies
• Cells as the basic units of living organisms
• Detailed structure of typical animal and plant cells, as seen using the electron microscope
• Outline functions of organelles in plant and animal cells
• Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) [PA] use an eyepiece graticule and stage micrometer scale to measure cells and be familiar with units (millimetre, micrometre, nanometre) used in cell studies;

(b) explain and distinguish between resolution and magnification (see section 5), with reference to light microscopy and electron microscopy;

(c) describe and interpret drawings and photographs of typical animal and plant cells, as seen using the electron microscope, recognising the following: rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body (Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex), mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes, chloroplasts, cell surface membrane, nuclear envelope, centrioles, nucleus, nucleolus, microvilli, cell wall, the large permanent vacuole and tonoplast (of plant cells) and plasmodesmata.
(knowledge that ribosomes occurring in the mitochondria and chloroplasts are 70S (smaller) than those in the rest of the cell (80S) should be included. The existence of small circular DNA in the mitochondrion and chloroplast should be noted);

(d) outline the functions of the structures listed in (c);

(e) [PA] compare the structure of typical animal and plant cells;

(f) [PA] draw and label low power plan diagrams of tissues and organs (including a transverse section of stems, roots and leaves);

(g) [PA] calculate linear magnification of drawings and photographs;

(h) [PA] calculate actual sizes of specimens from drawings and photographs;

(i) outline key structural features of typical prokaryotic cells (including: unicellular, 1-5μm diameter,
peptidoglycan cell walls, lack of membrane-bound organelles, naked circular DNA, 70S ribosomes) and compare and contrast the structure of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells (reference to mesosomes should not be included);

(j) use the knowledge gained in this section in new situations or to solve related problems.

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